In the pursuit of sustainable consumption and decarbonization of industries, biomass conversion has emerged as a promising pathway to transform organic materials, such as agricultural residues, forestry waste, and energy crops, into valuable biofuels, biochemicals, and bioproducts.

Pyrolysis, a fundamental thermochemical process, stands at the forefront of biomass conversion technologies. It involves subjecting biomass to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen, leading to thermal decomposition and the formation of diverse products, including gases, bio-oils, and biochar.

Biomass contains on average a carbon content of 40 – 60% with the remainder mainly being hydrogen and heteroatoms (e.g., oxygen [~45%], nitrogen [~1%], sulfur [<0.1%]). For this reason, biomass pyrolysis is inherently heterogeneous pyrolysis, which makes the process more complex. Heterogeneous pyrolysis generates multiple heterogeneous products, including oxygenates, aldehydes, ketones, and other functional groups, which significantly influence the composition and properties of the final pyrolysis products. To optimize biomass conversion efficiently, understanding carbon distribution and yield in pyrolysis products becomes crucial. As demonstrated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2019, without a complete carbon balance closure there can be a significant impact to the economics of a process design [1].

The Polyarc® System: A Revolutionary Tool for Heterogeneous Pyrolysis Analysis
The Polyarc® System has emerged as a cutting-edge technology designed to study the pyrolysis of compounds rich in heteroatoms. As a catalytic microreactor, the Polyarc® System converts carbon in pyrolysis compounds to methane. The reactor is situated post-column on a GC-FID. This leads to a universal carbon response factor, reducing the need for extensive calibration. This innovative approach streamlines the quantitation process, significantly enhancing the accuracy of compound concentration measurements.

Advantages of the Polyarc® System in Heterogeneous Pyrolysis Studies
Enhanced Quantitation Accuracy: By providing a universal response factor per carbon, the Polyarc® System ensures accurate quantitation of compounds without the need for multiple calibration standards. Every analyte is converted to the equivalent moles of methane with >99.9% efficiency. Researchers can determine the concentrations of various products with a single internal or external standard and knowledge of each compound’s molecular formula. The carbon molar concentration can be known without any information on the molecular formula or carbon number since each peak from the FID is directly equivalent to methane.

Fast Analysis and Throughput: The Polyarc® System streamlines the analytical process, enabling faster sample throughput and increased experimental productivity. Researchers can obtain results more efficiently, facilitating the exploration of a broader range of biomass feedstocks and operating conditions.

Comprehensive Mass Balance Closure: The Polyarc® System achieves mass balance closure of carbon fractions in pyrolysis studies, providing a comprehensive understanding of carbon distribution among the different pyrolysis products. This information is essential for optimizing biomass conversion processes.

Reduced Costs and Resource Requirements: Traditional flame ionization detector (FID) analysis often requires a significant number of calibration standards, making the process costly and resource intensive. In contrast, the Polyarc® System’s calibration-reduced approach saves time, effort, and resources, making it a cost-effective solution for heterogeneous pyrolysis analysis. Some calibration may be needed to account for inlet discrimination caused by partial preferential vaporization during the sample introduction. Dependent on the accuracy required, a well-tuned GC-Polyarc-FID can be used for a calibration-free analysis.

The Polyarc® System – A Calibration-Free Solution
The Polyarc® System’s unique approach eliminates the challenges associated with traditional response factor calibration in FID analysis. The need to obtain comprehensive calibration standards for biomass pyrolysis is a significant obstacle due to the diverse range of products generated, especially oxygenates and other challenging compounds.

The calibration-free quantitation provided by the Polyarc® System allows researchers to confidently analyze a wide range of pyrolysis products, including those without commercially available standards. This opens new possibilities for exploring diverse biomass feedstocks and their conversion potential without compromising the accuracy of their quantitation.

Applications of the Polyarc® System in Heterogeneous Pyrolysis Analysis
The Polyarc® System offers versatile applications in studying heterogeneous pyrolysis:

Analyzing Carbon Distribution: Researchers can accurately quantify carbon distribution among pyrolysis products, gaining insights into the efficiency of the process and identifying key reaction pathways.

Measuring Yield: Precise measurement of product yields helps optimize pyrolysis conditions to maximize the production of specific biofuels or high value biochemicals.

Quantifying Compounds Without Standards: The Polyarc® System empowers researchers to confidently analyze a wide range of products, including those previously challenging to quantify due to the lack of available standards.

Cost-Effectiveness: By reducing the need for extensive calibration, the Polyarc® System enhances the cost-effectiveness of pyrolysis analysis, allowing researchers to allocate resources to data analysis and process optimization.

The Polyarc® System has revolutionized the field of heterogeneous pyrolysis analysis, offering a dynamic solution for studying compounds with high levels of heteroatoms. Its calibration-free approach to quantitation, fast analysis, and comprehensive carbon distribution analysis has significantly advanced research in biomass conversion processes.

By providing researchers with a powerful and efficient tool, the Polyarc® System empowers them to gain valuable insights into the complexities of biomass conversion. As we continue to explore and innovate, the Polyarc® System will remain a key technology driving progress towards sustainable energy and environmentally friendly chemical production. With its unique capabilities and ongoing advancements, the Polyarc® System plays a vital role in shaping a greener and more sustainable future for biomass conversion.

To discuss the Polyarc System and learn how it can help generate the results you are after – schedule a call with Connor Beach, Technical Sales Engineer. He can provide additional information, answer your questions, and guide you in integrating the Polyarc System into your lab:

Connor Beach

Technical Sales Engineer

+1 612.444.3626


[1] Dutta, A., et. al. (2020, March). Ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved October 11, 2022, from